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Nutrition and exercise in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus
Dietary factors and insufficient exercise levels are now presumed to be the leading cause of chronic disease worldwide. Insulin resistance due to chronic energy-dense food intake combined with lack of physical activity has been proposed as the strongest single predictor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Conversely, a healthy diet in conjunction with exercise causes weight loss and reduces abdominal fat mass and insulin resistance. Furthermore, modulating the macronutrient composition of isoenergetic foods appears to have additional important effects on insulin sensitivity and diabetes risk, concepts that are of particular interest given that long-term sustained weight loss is difficult to achieve. We here provide an update of the current literature regarding the role of nutrition and exercise in the prevention and treatment of T2DM, with a focus on currently used concepts and controversies regarding modulation of glucose metabolism and diabetes risk using lifestyle measures.
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