|Table of Contents|
Breast cancer radiotherapy
For almost 100 years radiotherapy has been an uncontested treatment modality for patients with breast cancer. In the past 20 years patient treatment has been substantially improved by technological advances. In this contribution, state-of-the-art irradiation techniques and regimens tailored to local tumour conditions and patient age used in the clinical setting are reviewed.
Adesiyun TA, Lee BT, Yueh JH, et al. Impact of sequencing of postmastectomy radiotherapy and breast reconstruction on timing and rate of complications and patient satisfaction. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 2011; 80:392–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.02.039
Bartelink H, Horiot J-C, Poortmans PM, et al. Impact of a higher radiation dose on local control and survival in breast-conserving therapy of early breast cancer: 10-year results of the Randomized Boost Versus No Boost EORTC 22881-10882 Trial. J Clin Oncol 2007; 25:3259–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2007.11.4991
Bedi C, Kron T, Willis D, et al. Comparison of radiotherapy treatment plans for left-sided breast cancer patients based on three- and four-dimensional computed tomography imaging. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2011; 23:601–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clon.2011.04.004
Bensaleh S, Bezak E, Borg M. Review of MammoSite brachytherapy: advantages, disadvantages and clinical outcomes. Acta Oncol 2009; 48:487–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02841860802537916
Clarke M, Collins R, Darby S, et al. Effects of radiotherapy and differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer and local recurrence and 15 year survival: an overview of the randomised trials. Lancet 2005; 366:2087.
Fisher B, Anderson S, Bryant J, et al. Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing total mastectomy, lumpectomy, and lumpectomy plus irradiation for the treatment of invasive breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2002; 347:1233–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa022152
Fisher B, Bryant J, Dignam JJ, et al. Tamoxifen, radiation therapy, or both for prevention of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence after lumpectomy in women with invasive breast cancers of one centimeter or less. J Clin Oncol 2002; 20:4141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2002.11.101
Gulybán A, Kovács P, Sebestyén Z, et al. Multisegmented tangential breast fields: a rational way to treat breast cancer. Strahlenther Onkol 2008; 184:262–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00066-008-1770-1
Hasan Y, Kim L, Wloch J, et al. Comparison of planned versus actual dose delivered for external beam accelerated partial breast irradiation using cone-beam CT and deformable registration. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2011; 80:1473–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.04.013
Hattangadi JA, Powell SN, Macdonald SM, et al. Accelerated partial breast irradiation with low-dose-rate interstitial implant brachytherapy after wide local excision: 12 year outcomes from a prospective trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys [Epub ahead of print].
Hielstuen MH, Mjaaland I, Vikström J, Dybvik KI. Radiation during deep inspiration allows loco-regional treatment of left breast and axillary, supraclavicular and internal mammary lymph nodes without compromising target coverage or dose restrictions to organs at risk. Acta Oncol [Epub ahead of print].
Hill-Kayser ChE, Chacko D, Hwang W-T, et al. Long-term clinical and cosmetic outcomes after breast conservation treatment for women with early-stage breast carcinoma according to the type of breast boost. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 2011; 79:1048–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.12.026
Holland R, Veling SH, Mravunac M, et al. Histologic multifocality of Tis, T1–2, breast carcinomas. Implications for clinical trials of breast conserving surgery, Cancer 1985; 56:979. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(19850901)56:5<979::AID-CNCR2820560502>3.0.CO;2-N
Husain ZA, Mahmood U, Hanlon A, et al. Accelerated partial breast irradiation via brachytherapy: a patterns-of-care analysis with ASTRO consensus statement groupings. Brachytherapy 2011; 10:479–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brachy.2011.05.001
Ivaldi GB, Leonardi MC, Orecchia R, et al. Preliminary results of electron intraoperative therapy boost hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery in premenopausal women. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 2008; 72:485–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.12.038
Jagsi R, Pierce L. Postmastectomy radiation therapy for patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Semin Radiat Oncol 2009; 19:236–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semradonc.2009.05.009
Kauer-Dorner D, Pötter R, Resch A, et al. Partial breast irradiation for locally recurrent breast cancer within a second breast conserving treatment: alternative to mastectomy? Results from a prospective trial. Radiother Oncol 2012;102:96–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2011.07.020
Kraus-Tiefenbacher U, Bauer L, Scheda A, et al. Long-term toxicity of an intraoperative radiotherapy boost using low energy X-rays during breast-conserving surgery. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 2006; 66:377–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.05.042
Le Scodan R, Selz J, Stevens D, et al. Radiotherapy for stage II and stage III breast cancer patients with negative lymph nodes after preoperative chemotherapy and mastectomy. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 2012; 82:e1–e7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.12.054
Lewin AA, Derhagopian R, Saigal K, et al. Accelerated partial breast irradiation is safe and effective using intensity-modulated radiation therapy in selected early-stage breast cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2011 [Epub ahead of print].
Majumdar D, Mohammed SS, Naseer MA, et al. Respiratory gated simultaneous integrated boost-intensity modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) after breast conservative surgery for carcinoma of the breast: the Salmaniya Medical Complex experience. Gulf J Oncol 2011; 1(10):53–9.
Matsunuma R, Oguchi M, Fujikan T, et al. Influence of lymphatic invasion on locoregional recurrence following mastectomy: indication for postmastectomy radiotherapy for breast cancer patients with one to three positive nodes. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys [Epub ahead of print].
Murphy C, Anderson PR, Li T, et al. Impact of the radiation boost on outcomes after breast-conserving surgery and radiation. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 2011; 81:69–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.04.067
Nicolini G, Vanetti E, Clivio A, et al. Pre-clinical evaluation of respiratory-gated delivery of volumetric modulated arc therapy with RapidArc. Phys Med Biol 2010; 55:N347–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/55/12/N01
Obedian E, Haffty BG. Internal mammary nodal irradiation in conservatively-managed breast cancer patients: is there a benefit? Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 1999; 44:997–1003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0360-3016(99)00135-2
Sauer R, Sautter-Bihl ML, Budach W, et al. Accelerated partial breast irradiation: consensus statement of 3 German Oncology societies. Cancer 2007; 110:1187–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.22910
Sautter-Bihl ML, Sedlmayer F, Budach W, et al. Intraoperative radiotherapy as accelerated as accelerated partial breast irradiation for early breast cancer: beware of one-stop shops? Strahlenther Onkol 2010;186:651–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00066-010-8001-2
Smith BD, Bentzen SM, Correa CR, et al. Fractionation for whole breast irradiation: an American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) evidence-based guideline. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2011; 81:59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.04.042
The START Trialists Group. The UK Standardisation of Breast Radiotherapy (START) Trial B of radiotherapy hypofractionation for treatment of early breast cancer: a randomised trial. Lancet 2008; 371:1098–107.
Vikström J, Hielstuen MH, Mjaaland I, Dybvik KI. Cardiac and pulmonary dose reduction for tangentially irradiated breast cancer, utilizing deep inspiration breath-hold with audio-visual guidance, without compromising target coverage. Acta Oncol 2011; 50:42–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/0284186X.2010.512923
Wazer DE, Kaufman S, Cuttino L, et al. Accelerated partial breast irradiation: an analysis of variables associated with late toxicity and long-term cosmetic outcome after high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2006; 64:489–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2005.06.028
Wenz F, Welzel G, Keller A, et al. Early initiation of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) may increase the risk of long-term toxicity in patients undergoing intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) as a boost for breast cancer. Breast 2008; 17:617–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.breast.2008.05.009
Whelan TJ, Pignol JP, Levine MN, et al. Long-term results of hypofractionated radiation therapy for breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2010; 362:513. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa0906260
Williamson D, Dinniwell R, Fung S, et al. Local control with conventional and hypofractionated adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery for ductal carcinoma in-situ. Radiother Oncol 2010; 95: 317–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2010.03.021
Zauls AJ, Watkins JM, Wahlquist AE, et al. Outcomes in women treated with MammoSite Brachytherapy or whole breast irradiation stratified by ASTRO Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Consensus Statement Groups. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 2012; 82:21–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.08.034
View all comments | Add comment