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State-of-the-art and future aspects of the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus
Type 2 diabetes mellitus increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and that of microvascular complications such as nephropathy, retinopathy and neuropathy. Its global prevalence is rising and leads to an enormous economic burden. Treatment of hyperglycaemia has been proven to decrease microvascular and macrovascular complications and to improve patients’ quality of life. Prevention and primary treatment of diabetes consists of lifestyle intervention in order to reduce obesity by diet and exercise. As diabetes is a progressive disease, pharmacotherapy needs to be introduced at some point of time to achieve the individualized glycaemic targets. In addition to established medications such as metformin, sulfonylureas and glitazones, recent developments targeting the incretin system or renal glucose absorption offer novel approaches for diabetes treatment. This review attempts to provide an overview about the current and future aspects of the pharmaceutical treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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