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Ocular trauma in Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria

Kehinde Fasasi Monsudi, Abdulkabir Ayansiji Ayanniyi
Published in : HAMDAN MEDICAL JOURNAL ; Vol 6, No 1 (2013)
DOI : 10.7707/hmj.v6i1.176

Abstract


Aim. The aim of the study was to determine the patterns of ocular trauma among patients presenting at the Federal Medical Centre in Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria.

Methods. A 1-year retrospective review was undertaken of all patients presenting with ocular trauma to the Federal Medical Centre in Birnin Kebbi.

Results. Ocular trauma was observed in 89 of 1800 (4.9%) patients attending the eye clinic during the study period, with 65 (73%) being males and 46 (51.7%) being children aged 0–16 years. Of these 89 cases of trauma, 59 (66.3%) were caused by blunt and 30 (33.7%) by penetrating injuries, with a majority (61.8%) occurring in the home during weekdays. The greatest numbers of injuries were inflicted by sticks (25.8%) and stones (20.2%). The cornea was affected in 47.2% of cases. Prior to presentation, 79.8% of patients used eye drops purchased over the counter and 7% used a harmful traditional eye medication. Sixty per cent presented 1 week after the trauma took place. At presentation, 33.7% of patients were blind; causes of blindness were corneal scarring (in 34.5% of blind patients), bullous keratopathy (in 27.6%), corneal blood staining (in 10.3%), aphakia (in 6.9%) and retinal detachment (in 20.7%). Visual acuity at presentation (P = 0.001) correlated with visual acuity at discharge, when the proportion of patients who were blind remained at 32.6% (P = 0.002). A relationship was found between both age (P = 0.017) and occupation (P = 0.000) and the location in which the injury occurred, but this was not so for sex (P = 0.069). No relationships were found between age (P = 0.286), sex (P = 0.502) or occupation (P = 0.637) and the causes of ocular trauma. Age (P = 0.354) and sex (P = 0.511) showed no connection with the part of the eye affected; however, there was an association between the site of the injury and the patient’s occupation (P = 0.001).

Conclusion. Ocular trauma remains a significant cause of preventable blindness in developing economies. Renewed efforts are required to reduce cases of blindness from ocular trauma, especially among males and among children during school holidays.

 


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