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Primary well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumour (carcinoid tumour) of the urinary bladder
Primary well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumour (NET) (carcinoid tumour) of the urinary bladder is extremely rare and most clinicians would be unfamiliar with its presentation, investigation, pathological classification, management and treatment outcomes. The aim of this article is to review the literature on reported cases of primary well-differentiated NETs of the urinary bladder. Bladder NETs due to metastasis from other sites and mixed-bladder NETs were excluded from the literature search. Fewer than 20 cases of primary well-differentiated NETs of the urinary bladder have been reported in the literature. A total of 18 cases were reviewed, with 28% of the cases discovered as an incidental finding. The mean age of the patients at presentation was 56 years (range: 30–73 years). There was no sex predilection. The size of the tumour ranged from 2 to 50mm. The mean follow-up was 24 months. This tumour tends to present with haematuria, with transurethral resection as a modality of treatment with good results. Histological examination of reported cases of well-differentiated NETs of the urinary bladder have exhibited histological characteristics similar to primary well-differentiated NETs that are found in sites outside the urinary bladder. Primary well-differentiated NETs (carcinoid) of the urinary bladder are very rare and have similar histological characteristics to those of carcinoid tumours in other sites of the body. They predominantly present with haematuria, appear to have excellent prognosis and are amenable to transurethral resection.