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Health care-associated infections in the intensive care unit of Saqr Hospital, Ras Al Khaimah, in 2013
Introduction: Heath care-associated infections are a major threat to patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Owing to the difficulty in gathering reliable data, evidence regarding ICU-acquired infections in the developing world is limited. This study aimed to assess the epidemiology of hospital-acquired infections in ICU patients in Saqr Hospital, Ras Al-Khaimah, United Arab Emirates. Material and methods: A retrospective review of nosocomial infections in the ICU of Saqr Hospital between 2013 and 2014 was performed. Nosocomial infections were defined according to the definitions outlined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The incidence of patient nosocomial infection, the excess length of stay, causative agents and the distribution of nosocomial infection sites were determined, then pathogen and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were further investigated. Results: The study included 364 patients admitted to the ICU in the years 2013 and 2014. The overall patient nosocomial infection rate was 20.9%. Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) accounted for half of the infections (50%), followed by bloodstream (24%) and urinary tract (UTI, 18%) infections. In addition, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were the most frequent pathogens isolated in patients with LRTIs, bloodstream infections and UTIs, respectively. The average length of stay for infected patients was 15.5 days, which was 10 days more than the average for non-infected patients. Empirical antibiotics were used to treat these patients and antimicrobial susceptibility results were positive for all organisms except C. albicans. The overall mortality rate among patients admitted during 2013 to the ICU of Saqr Hospital was 27.7%. The mortality rate of patients admitted to the ICU with positive culture results was 26%. Conclusion: Guidelines for surveillance and prevention of nosocomial infections must be implemented in order to reduce the rate of infection. Acknowledgements: We would like to thank Dr Rasha A Salama for supervising and supporting our research and Dr James Donato for his help.