Hamdan Medical Journal (previously the Journal of Medical Sciences)
|Table of Contents|
Human Embryonic and Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines
Human embryonic stem (ES) cells capture the imagination because after many months of proliferation in vitro, these versatile cells maintain the ability to form potentially any cell type that makes up the body; The proliferative and developmental potential of human ES cells promises an essentially unlimited supply of differentiated cells for basic research, drug discovery, and for transplantation therapies for diseases ranging from heart disease to Parkinson's disease to leukemia. However, human ES cells are derived from preimplantation embryos, making them highly controversial. Using information gleaned from over a decade of research with primate and human ES cells, including the identification of key signaling pathways that promote undifferentiated proliferation and the development of approaches for genetic modification, we have recently derived the first human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, cells with the defining characteristics of ES cells, but derived from somatic, not embryonic material. Human iPS cells thus have all the advantages of ES cells, but avoid the ethical controversy surrounding the destruction of human preimplantation embryos, and in addition allow the derivation of pluripotent cells lines that match the genetic background of a specific individual. For drug discovery and testing, panels of iPS cell lines can now be derived with a genetic composition that accurately reflects the ethnic diversity of a population, and cell lines can be derived from individuals predisposed to specific diseases for the development of new in vitro models of disease. For transplantation therapies based on these cells, patient-specific iPS cell lines largely eliminate the concern of immune rejection. Here we discuss the historical events leading up to the isolation of human ES cells, and how the successful derivation of human iPS cells depended critically on the last decade of human ES cell research.
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