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Babtain, Assiri, Bajunaid, Muthusamy, and Bhatia: The prognosis of primary generalized epilepsy in patients with parental consanguinity – a 1-year retrospective study

Introduction: Primary generalized epilepsy (PGE) is believed to be associated with a favourable prognosis but its relationship with parental consanguinity (PC) is unknown.

Objectives: To assess the prognosis of PGE in patients with PC in a 1-year follow-up study.

Materials and methods: Patients with PGE, seen between January 2012 and June 2013, were identified, and those with a 1-year follow-up were included in the study. Epilepsy risk factors were determined for all patients, as well as the family history of epilepsy (FHE) and PC. Seizure control was recorded at 6- and 12-month follow-up, but predictors of seizure control were assessed during the last visit.

Results: A total of 84 patients were studied, 47 of which were men (56%), and the mean age at epilepsy onset was 14.6 years. FHE was documented in 23 patients (27.4%) and PC (first and second degree) was observed in 22 patients (26.2%). Seizure control was documented in 71 patients (84.5%). First-degree PC was observed significantly in patients who continued to have seizures in 12-month follow-up (2.8 vs. 23.1%, P = 0.025), but other variables were distributed insignificantly between the two groups. Multiple regression analysis showed that first-degree PC was 17 times more likely to be associated with a less favourable prognosis in a 1-year follow-up of patients with PGE (odds ratio = 17.7, P = 0.027, 95% confidence interval = 1.4 to 22.6). Other factors, such as age at onset, FHE and other PC, could not predict prognosis.

Conclusions: Patients with PGE-lacking first-degree PC were more likely to be seizure free in a 1-year follow-up, which may indicate a genetic influence of PC that would lead to a less favourable prognosis.

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