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Asiri, Amin, Abdulaziz, and Saleh: Evaluation of the antiulcer potential of Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel extract on indomethacin-induced duodenal ulcer

Introduction: Duodenal ulcer is a serious public health problem that affects approximately 10% of the global population and is two to three times more prevalent than gastric ulcer. Naturally occurring medications for duodenal ulcer include the use of pomegranate rind powder. This traditional medication has been used in Saudi Arabia for many years.

Objectives: To investigate the capacity of pomegranate peel extract in healing and preventing duodenal ulceration in rats.

Materials and methods: Experimental animals were divided into four groups. Group I was used as a control. In Group II (ulcer group) duodenal ulcer was induced by indomethacin administration using a single oral dose of 25 mg/kg. In Group III (prevention group), 2 weeks before ulcer induction, rats were treated orally with pomegranate peel extract or ranitidine. In Group IV (treatment group), after ulcer induction, rats were treated with pomegranate peel extract or ranitidine for 2 weeks. The duodenum was subjected to light microscopic studies, immunohistochemical detection of Ki67 as a proliferative marker and biochemical studies (measuring the parameter of lipid peroxidation). Statistical analyses were carried out for determination of the significance of changes in Ki67 proliferation index.

Results: In the ulcer group, the levels of malondialdehyde were significantly increased while the reduced glutathione activity was lowered in duodenal mucosa compared with the control group. Apparent disturbed villous to crypt ratio with necrosis and cellular lysis at the tip of the villi and marked mononuclear cellular infiltration were observed in the ulcer group. There was preservation of the crypt to villous ratio, an increase in goblet cells and decreased levels of malondialdehyde in the protection and treatment groups. The number of Ki67 immunostained cells was also increased in these groups.

Conclusions: The use of pomegranate rind powder gave good results in the treatment, and perhaps also prevention, of duodenal ulceration in rats.




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