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Alanazi, Al-mansour, and Sami: Depression and quality of life in patients with chronic kidney disease on haemodialysis in Central Province in Saudi Arabia

Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) implies long-standing, and usually progressive, impairment in renal function. Owing to the chronic nature of the illness, the majority of CKD patients may trigger physiological, psychological and social stressors at any point during the disease which interferes with their normal lifestyle and quality of life.

Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of depression among CKD patients on dialysis in the central region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and to evaluate their lifestyle, social relationship and quality of life.

Materials and methods: An observational cross-sectional hospital-based study. Data were collected from 159 CKD patients of either sex from haemodialysis units at King Abdulaziz Medical City of National Guard, Riyadh, King Saud Medical City, Riyadh and King Khalid General Hospital, Al Majma’ah, KSA. A self-administered questionnaire containing demographic questions (Beck Depression Inventory) for measuring the severity of depression, and the HHHHHMM Scale and a modified form of WHOQOL (World Health Organization Quality of Life) questionnaire to evaluate the quality of life of CKD patients. Data were entered and analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA).

Results: The prevalence of depression among CKD patients was 57%. The majority of patients [112 (70.4%)] had depression at the beginning of the condition after being diagnosed with CKD, and the majority of the patients [127 (79.9%)] were leading a normal social life despite the disease. A significant association was observed between depression scale and depression at the beginning of the condition (P = 0.043), showing that patients had mild mood disturbance (n = 48, 30.2%), borderline clinical depression (n = 28, 17.6%), moderate depression (n = 38, 23.9%) or severe depression (n = 23, 14.5%). A significant association was observed between depression scale and the QOL scale (P < 0.001), showing that those within an acceptable quality of life had borderline depression (n = 22, 78.5%), and those with an unacceptable quality of life, the majority, had severe depression (n = 16, 69.5%).

Conclusions: A high proportion of CKD patients on dialysis experienced depression, which eventually resulting in an impaired quality of life.

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