Hamdan Medical Journal (previously the Journal of Medical Sciences)

Table of Contents  

Epidemiological Study of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among School Children in the United Arab Emirates

Valsamma Eapen, Abdel Azim Mabrouk, Taoufik Zoubeidi, Sufyan Sabri, Saeed Yousef, Jameela Al-Ketbi, Thahani Al-Kyomi, Mona Essa Jakka
Published in : Journal of Medical Sciences ; Vol 2, No 3 (2009)
DOI : 10.2174/1996327000902030119


Background: While extensive research data is available on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) from industrialized countries, very few studies have been undertaken in the developing countries including the Arab world.

Methods: A representative random sample of school children aged 5 to 16 years was evaluated for the prevalence of ADHD using the Conner Parent and Teacher Scale in Dubai, Al-Ain and Ras Al- Khaima to represent the urban, semi-urban and rural population of UAE.

Results: The rate of ADHD was 4.1% as per the parent report and 3.4% as per the teacher report. Children with ADHD were noted to have a range of psychiatric co-morbidity.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest the importance of comprehensive and early screening program for ADHD and we hope that this data on the prevalence and associated factors can provide the basis for setting priorities and designing interventions.

View article in  :   PDF    


APA. DSM IV Diagnostic and Statistical - Manual, 4th Edition. American Psychiatric Association: Washington, D.C. 1994.

White J. Review Personality, temperament and ADHD: a review of the literature. Pers Individ Diff 1999; 27: 589-98.

Ford T, Goodman R, Meltzer H. The British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Survey 1999: The Prevalence of DSM-IV Disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2003; 42(10): 1203-11.

Blackwell DL, Vickerie JL, Wondimu EA. Summary health statistics for U.S. children: National Health Interview Survey, 2000. Vital Health Stat 10, 2003; 213: 1-48.

Leung PW, Luk SL, Ho TP, Taylor E, Mak FL, Bacon- Shone J. The diagnosis and prevalence of hyperactivity in chinese schoolboys. Br J Psychiatry 1996; 168: 486-96.

Scahill L, Schwab-Stone M. Epidemiology of ADHD in school-age children. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2000; 9: 541-55.

Polanczyk G, de Lima MS, Horta BL, Biederman J, Rohde LA. The Worldwide Prevalence of ADHD: A systemic review and metaregression analysis. Am J Psychiatry 2007; 164(6): 942-8.

Barkley R. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, A handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: The Guilford press1990.

Moina BS, Pelham WE, Gnagy EM, Thompson AL, Marshal MP. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder risk for heavy drinking and alcohol use disorder is age specific. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2007; 31(4): 643-54.

Rowland AS, Lesesne CA, Abramowitz AJ. The epidemiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a public health view. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 2002; 8(3): 162-70.

Karam EG, Farah LG, Fayyad JA, et al. ADHD in the Arab World: A review of epidemiological studies. J Atten Disord 2009, Apr 16 [Epub ahead of print].

Eapen V, Jakka ME, Abou-Saleh M.T. Children with psychiatric disorders: the al-ain community psychiatric survey. Can J Psychiatry 2003; 48: 402-7.

Eapen V, Al-Gazali L, Bin-Othman S, Abou-Saleh M. Mental health problems among schoolchildren in united arab emirates: prevalence and risk factors. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1998; 37(8): 880-6.

Eapen V, Al-Sabosy M, Saeed M, Sabri S. Child Psychiatric disorders in a primary care Arab population. Int J Psychiatry Med 2004; 34(1): 51-60.

Ford T, Goodman R, Meltzer H. The british child andadolescent mental health survey 1999: the prevalence of DSM-IV disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2003; 42(10): 1203-11.

Mitsis EM, McKay Ke, Schulz KP, Newcorn JH, Halperion JM. Parent-teacher concordance for DSM-IV attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a clinicreferred sample. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2000; 39(3): 308-13.

Bu-Haroon A, Eapen V, Bener A. The prevalence of hyperactivity symptoms in the United Arab Emirates. Nord J Psychiatry 1999; 53: 439-42.

Biederman J, Faraone SV, Keenan K, Knee D, Tsuang MT. Family-genetic and psychosocial risk factors in DSM-III attention deficit disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1990; 29(4): 526-33.

Button TM, Thapar A, McGuffin P. Relationship between antisocial behaviour, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and maternal prenatal smoking. Br J Psychiatry 2005; 187: 155-60.

Lou HC. Etiology and pathogenesis of attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Significance of prematurity and prenatal hypoxic-haemodynamic encephalopathy. Acta Paediatrica 1996; 85: 1266- 71.

Pliszka SR. Patterns of psychiatric comorbidity with Attention-deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2000; 9(3): 525-40.

Conners CK. Rating Scales for use in drug studies with children. Psychopharmacol Bull (Special Issue- Pharmacotherapy with Children) 1973, pp. 24-84.

Daradkeh TK. Parent Teacher reliability in rating children on the 10-items conners rating scale. Egy J Psychiatry 1993: 16: 52-56.

Bird HR. Epidemiology of childhood disorders in a cross-cultural context. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1996; 37: 35-49.

Biederman J, Monuteaux MC, Kendrick E, Klein KL, Faraone SV. The CBCL as a screen for psychiatric comorbidity in paediatric patients with ADHD. Arch Dis Child 2005; 90(10): 1010-5.

Pereira Ponde M, Cruz Freire A.C. Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Schoolchildren in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2007; 65(2-A): 240-4.

Pliszka S. Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolsc Psychiatry 2007; 46(7): 894-921.

Wolraich ML, Hannah JN, Baumgaertel A, Feurer ID. Examination of DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder in a country-wide Sample. J Dev Behav Peadiatr 1998; 19(3): 162-8.

Rowland AS, Umbach DM, Catoe KE, et al. Studying the epidemiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: screening method and pilot results. Can J Psychiatry 2001; 46(10): 931-40.

Froehlich TE, Lanphear BP, Epstein JN, Barbaresi WJ, Katusic SK, Kahn RS. Prevalence, recognition and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorderin a national sample of US children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2007; 161(9): 857-64.

Ghubash R, Eapen V. Behavioural problems in school children in the United Arab Emirates: Cross-Informant variance. Arab J Psychiatry 1999; 10: 31-8.

Baugmaertel A, Wolraich ML, Dietrich M. Comparison of diagnostic criteria for attention deficit disorders in a German elementary school sample. J Am Acad Child Adolsc Psychiatry 1995; 34(5): 629-38.

Bener A, Qahtani R, Abdelaal I. The Prevalence of ADHD among primary school Children in an Arabian society. J Atten Disord 2006; 10(1): 77-82.

Al-Sharbati M, Al Adawi S, Al Hussaini A, Al Lawati S, Martin R. ADHD in Omani schoolgirls. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2004a; 43(2): 132-3.

Al-Sharbati M, Al Lawati S, Al Msherfi F, Al Hussaini A. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in a sample of Omani schoolboys. Can J Psychiatry 2004b; 4(8): 572.

Byun H, Yang J, Lee M, et al. Psychiatric comorbidity in Korean children and adolescents with attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder psychopathology according to subtype. Yonsei Med J 2006; 47(1): 113-21

Takahashi K, Miyawaki D, Suzuki F, et al. Hyperactivity and comorbidity in Japannese children with attention- deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2007; 61: 255-62.

Souza I, Pinheiro MA, Mattos P. Anxiety disorders in an attention –Deficit/ hyperactivity disorder Clinical Sample. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2005; 63(2-B): 407-9.

Eapen V, Al-Ghazali L, Bin-Othman S, Abou-Saleh M, El-Nasser KA, Ramzy R. School mental health screening: A model for developing countries. J Trop Pediatr 1999; 45: 53-5.

Pelham WE Jr, Fabiano GA, Massetti GM. Evidencebased assessment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. J Clin Child Adoesc Psychol 2005; 34(3): 449-76.

Add comment 

Home  Editorial Board  Search  Current Issue  Archive Issues  Announcements  Aims & Scope  About the Journal  How to Submit  Contact Us
Find out how to become a part of the HMJ  |   CLICK HERE >>
© Copyright 2012 - 2013 HMJ - HAMDAN Medical Journal. All Rights Reserved         Website Developed By Cedar Solutions INDIA