Hamdan Medical Journal (previously the Journal of Medical Sciences)

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Discovery of Ghrelin and Its Physiological Function

Masayasu Kojima
Published in : Journal of Medical Sciences ; Vol 3, No 2 (2010)
DOI : 10.2174/1996327001003020092

Abstract


The endogenous ligand for growth-hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) was discovered in 1999 from stomach and named it "ghrelin," after a word root ("ghre") in Proto-Indo-European languages meaning "grow", since ghrelin stimulates growth hormone (GH) release from pituitary. In addition, ghrelin stimulates appetite and increases food intake by acting on the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, a region known to control food intake. Thus, ghrelin plays important roles for maintaining growth hormone release and energy homeostasis in vertebrates. The diverse functions of ghrelin raise the possibility of its clinical application for GH deficiency, eating disorder, gastrointestinal disease, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and aging, etc.

Keywords


Ghrelin; acyl-modification; stomach; growth hormone releasing

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References


Kojima M, Hosoda H, Date Y, Nakazato M, Matsuo H, Kangawa K. Ghrelin is a growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide from stomach. Nature 1999; 402: 656-60.

Kojima M, Kangawa K. Ghrelin: structure and function. Physiol Rev 2005; 85: 495-522.

Nishi Y, Hiejima H, Hosoda H, Kaiya H, Mori K, Fukue Y, et al. Ingested medium-chain fatty acids are directly utilized for the acyl modification of ghrelin. Endocrinology 2005; 146: 2255-64.

Date Y, Kojima M, Hosoda H, Sawaguchi A, Mondal MS, Suganuma T, et al. Ghrelin, a novel growth hormonereleasing acylated peptide, is synthesized in a distinct endocrine cell type in the gastrointestinal tracts of rats and humans. Endocrinology 2000; 141: 4255-61.

Date Y, Nakazato M, Hashiguchi S, Dezaki K, Mondal MS, Hosoda H, et al. Ghrelin is present in pancreatic alphacells of humans and rats and stimulates insulin secretion. Diabetes 2002; 51: 124-9.

Nakazato M, Murakami N, Date Y, Kojima M, Matsuo H, Kangawa K, et al. A role for ghrelin in the central regulation of feeding. Nature 2001; 409: 194-8.





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