Hamdan Medical Journal (previously the Journal of Medical Sciences)

Table of Contents  

Assessment and Management of Hypertension in Children and Adolescents: Part B – Investigations and Management

Hassib Narchi
Published in : Journal of Medical Sciences ; Vol 4, No 1 (2011)
DOI : 10.2174/1996327001104010014

Abstract


Once the diagnosis of hypertension has been established in a child or an adolescent, the investigations to be requested need to include a search for the primary cause when secondary hypertension is suspected, the identification of associated and co-morbid conditions and the evaluation of target-organ damage. Instituting therapy should be based on clear indications, the choice of lifestyle and/or pharmacological treatment should be guided by the pathophysiology of the underlying mechanism and based on evidence-based guidelines.

Keywords


Adolescent; blood pressure; child; humans; hypertension

View article in  :   PDF    

References


McCrindle BW. Assessment and management of hypertension in children and adolescents. Nat Rev Cardiol 2010; 7: 155-63.

Fossali E, Intermite R, Minoja M, Tirelli S, Sereni F. The captopril test in children with renovascular and renal hypertension. Acta Paediatr 1996; 85: 1129-31.

Bravo EL, Tarazi RC, Gifford RW, Stewart BH. Circulating and urinary catecholamines in pheochromocytoma.Diagnostic and pathophysiologic implications. N Engl J Med 1979; 301: 682-6.

Abdulsamea S, Anderson P, Biassoni L, Brennan E, McLaren CA, Marks SD, et al. Pre- and postcaptopril renal scintigraphy as a screening test for renovascular hypertension in children. Pediatr Nephrol 2010; 25: 317-22.

National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 2004; 114: 555-76.

Flynn JT, Alderman MH. Characteristics of children with primary hypertension seen at a referral center. Pediatr Nephrol 2005; 20: 961-6.

Sinaiko AR. Treatment of hypertension in children. Pediatr Nephrol 1994; 8: 603-9.

Flynn JT, Daniels SR. Pharmacologic treatment of hypertension in children and adolescents. J Pediatr 2006; 149: 746-54.

Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL Jr, et al. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure JAMA 2003; 289: 2560-72.

Sinaiko AR. Hypertension in children. N Engl J Med 1996; 335: 1968-73.

Rocchini AP, Katch V, Anderson J, Hinderliter J, Becque D, Martin M, et al. Blood pressure in obese adolescents: effect of weight loss. Pediatrics 1988; 82: 16-23.

Update on the 1987 Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents: a working group report from the National High Blood Pressure Education Program. National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on Hypertension Control in Children and Adolescents. Pediatrics 1996; 98: 649-58.

Appel LJ, Brands MW, Daniels SR, Karanja N, Elmer PJ, Sacks FM. Dietary approaches to prevent and treat hypertension: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Hypertension 2006; 47: 296-308.

Aeberli I, Spinas GA, Lehmann R, l'Allemand D, Molinari L, Zimmermann MB. Diet determines features of the metabolic syndrome in 6- to 14-year-old children. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2009; 79: 14-23.

Gonzalez-Juanatey JR, Paz FL, Eiras S, Teijeira- Fernandez E. [Adipokines as novel cardiovascular disease markers. Pathological and clinical considerations]. Rev Esp Cardiol 2009; 62 Suppl 2: 9-16.

Bhave S, Bavdekar A, Otiv M. IAP National Task Force for Childhood Prevention of Adult Diseases: Childhood Obesity. Indian Pediatr 2004; 41: 559-75.

Gutin B, Basch C, Shea S, Contento I, DeLozier M, Rips J, et al. Blood pressure, fitness, and fatness in 5- and 6- year-old children. JAMA 1990; 264: 1123-7.

Shea S, Basch CE, Gutin B, Stein AD, Contento IR, Irigoyen M, et al. The rate of increase in blood pressure in children 5 years of age is related to changes in aerobic fitness and body mass index. Pediatrics 1994; 94: 465-70.

Hofman A, Walter HJ, Connelly PA, Vaughan RD. Blood pressure and physical fitness in children. Hypertension 1987; 9: 188-91.

Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness and Council on School Health. Active healthy living: prevention of childhood obesity through increased physical activity. Pediatrics 2006; 117: 1834-42.

Fixler DE, Laird WP, Browne R, Fitzgerald V, Wilson S, Vance R. Response of hypertensive adolescents to dynamic and isometric exercise stress. Pediatrics 1979; 64: 579-83.

McCaffrey FM, Braden DS, Strong WB. Sudden cardiac death in young athletes. A review. Am J Dis Child 1991; 145: 177-83.

Kaplan NM, Opie LH. Controversies in hypertension. Lancet 2006; 367: 168-76.

Rames LK, Clarke WR, Connor WE, Reiter MA, Lauer RM. Normal blood pressure and the evaluation of sustained blood pressure elevation in childhood: the Muscatine study. Pediatrics 1978; 61: 245-51.

ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group. Major outcomes in highrisk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). JAMA 2002; 288: 2981-97.

Hogg RJ, Furth S, Lemley KV, Portman R, Schwartz GJ, Coresh J, et al. National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease in children and adolescents: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Pediatrics 2003; 111: 1416-21.

Fivush B, Neu A, Furth S. Acute hypertensive crises in children: emergencies and urgencies. Curr Opin Pediatr 1997; 9: 233-6.

Fenves AZ, Ram CV. Drug treatment of hypertensive urgencies and emergencies. Semin Nephrol 2005; 25: 272- 80.

Yiu V, Orrbine E, Rosychuk RJ, MacLaine P, Goodyer P, Girardin C, et al. The safety and use of short-acting nifedipine in hospitalized hypertensive children. Pediatr Nephrol 2004; 19: 644-50.

Calvetta A, Martino S, von Vigier RO, Schmidtko J, Fossali E, Bianchetti MG. "What goes up must immediately come down!" Which indication for short-acting nifedipine in children with arterial hypertension? Pediatr Nephrol 2003; 18: 1-2.





Add comment 





Home  Editorial Board  Search  Current Issue  Archive Issues  Announcements  Aims & Scope  About the Journal  How to Submit  Contact Us
Find out how to become a part of the HMJ  |   CLICK HERE >>
© Copyright 2012 - 2013 HMJ - HAMDAN Medical Journal. All Rights Reserved         Website Developed By Cedar Solutions INDIA