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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 139-144

An observational study of risk association of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in the first-degree relatives of patients with diabetes mellitus

1 Department of Medicine, Holy Family Hospital, Delhi, India
2 Department of Medicine, Pandit Bhagwat Dayal Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India

Correspondence Address:
Divya Rani
212 Ashirwad Enclave, L.P. Extension, Delhi - 110 092
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/hmj.hmj_16_22

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Background: Occurence of diabetes and hypertension is affected by the genetic modulation and environmental factors. Thus it becomes important to determine associated factors governing them among the relatives. Aims and Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) and associated risk factors in the first-degree relatives (FDRs) of the patients with type 2 DM (T2DM). Materials and Methods: The study design was cross-sectional for a period of 18 months from September 2017 to March 2019 wherein 200 people who were FDRs of T2DM patients, visiting Holy Family Hospital, New Delhi, were enrolled. The demographic details, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and HbA1c levels were assessed, based on which the FDRs were classified into pre-diabetes, diabetes and hypertensive. The odds ratio was calculated for risk association to predict the occurrence of DM and HTN. Results: The age of the study population ranged from 30 to 50.25 years, with a median age of 38 years. There were 116 (58%) males and 84 (42%) females. The median body mass index (BMI) was 24.5, with 49.5% having normal BMI, 43% being pre-obese and 7.5% obese. As per the glycaemic parameters, 80 (40%) had normal glucose tolerance, 50 (25%) were pre-diabetic and 70 (35%) had diabetes. Amongst the 200 FDRs, HTN was prevalent in 95 (47.5%) cases. Higher age was found to be a significant risk factor for DM, with a higher odds of 1.056 (P = 0.021), while higher age and female gender carried a significantly higher odds of occurrence of HTN in FDRs, with an odds ratio of 1.049 and 2.178. Conclusion: DM and HTN are prevalent in FDRs of T2DM patients. Higher age is a significant risk factor for both DM and HTN, necessitating a regular screening of FDRs for an early interception to prevent these diseases.

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